The broad definition of a bull market is a sustained period where prices rise — usually months or years. The term is most commonly used in reference to the stock market, but other asset classes can have bull markets as well, such as real estate, commodities, or foreign currencies.
The financial market is a broad term describing any marketplace where trading of securities including equities, bonds, currencies and derivatives occur. Some financial markets are small with little activity, while some financial markets like the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) trade trillions of dollars of securities daily.
The stock market refers to the collection of markets and exchanges where the regular activities of buying, selling and issuance of shares of publicly held companies take place. Such financial activities are conducted through institutionalized formal exchanges or over-the-counter (OTC) marketplaces which operate under the defined set of regulations.
Coverage ratio represents a company’s ability to service its debt and meet its financial obligations such as interests payments or dividends. The higher the coverage ratio, the easier it should be to make interest payments on its debt or pay dividends.
The debt-to-equity (D/E) ratio is calculated by dividing a company’s total liabilities by its shareholder equity. These numbers are available on the balance sheet of a company’s financial statements.
Gearing ratios represent a group of financial ratios that compare some form of owner’s equity (or capital) to debt, or funds borrowed by the company. Gearing is a measurement of the entity’s financial leverage, which demonstrates the degree to which a firm’s activities are funded by shareholders’ funds versus creditor’s funds.